3. LOCATION AND NATURAL CONDITIONS. The Kaluga region is located in the Central area of Russia to the southwest of Moscow. It borders with the Moscow, the Tula, the Oryol, the Bryansk and the Smolensk regions. A rainfall varies from 365-1000 mm.
4. TOTAL AREA The total area is 29.9 thousand square km. Important international railway lines and highways cross the territory of the region: Moscow-Kaluga-Bryansk-Kiev-Lvov-Warsaw. Kaluga is 190 km far away from Moscow by car.
5. LAND RESOURCES Total area of the region is 2978.5 thousand ha, agricultural (61.2%) and wood lands (23.9%) prevail. In the structure of agricultural land the largest areas are occupied by arable land (983.4 thousand ha), pastures (244.1 thousand ha) and haying land (135.8 thousand ha). Pastures are characterized with law part of nutrient matters because of natural peculiarities and also of law cultural in agricultural production. Over 70% of pastures have law and medium level of potassium and almost half medium and law level of phosphorus. High acidity is typical for 40% of the pastures. Geographical position of the region on the junction of the forest and forest-steppe zones accounts for significantly mixed character of soil cover. In the largest part of the territory of the region sod and podzol soils with various mechanical conditions prevail. In eastern and central districts of the region sod and podzol soils give place to light-gray forest loam soils having higher natural fertility. Side by side with these basic soil types one comes across sod soils and sod and carbonate soils, typical podzol soils formed on sands of significant thickness, flood plain and marsh soils.
6. NATURAL RESOURCES Land resources occupy the main part of the natural resources of the region. Farmland comprises 46%. Natural resources include coal, peat, phosphorites, Tripoli, gyps, glass, building sands, brick clays and also rich reserves of mineral medicinal waters. There are 2 big phosphorites ores which are good for producing mineral fertilizers. There are fire clays and ceramic clays, which are of great value for metallurgy.
7. WATER RESOURCES Main rivers are the Oka with its tributaries. There are also tributaries of the Desna. There are 2043 rivers more than 11.7 thousand km. Long and 280 rivers are 10 km long and the total length is 7.4 thousand km.
8. VEGETATION Plains, fields and forests with various vegetation and wildlife occupy the main part of the region. There is 1.28 million ha of forests, mostly deciduous ones. Total wood reserve is 191 million cub. meters. The Kaluga region area is mostly a wood zone by its nature-geographical and climate conditions. Leaf-bearing wood plantations mainly represent Forest raw material resources of the region. Out of the area covered with forest, plantations with coniferous wood prevalence occupy 330 thousand ha (26%) and those with leaf bearing wood prevalence 930 thousand ha (74%). Birch and aspen grove prevail in them.
9. ANIMAL WORLD Animal world of the region is of a mixed kind: it comprises northern, West-European and steppe species. Out of vertebrates 56 species of mammals, 225 species of birds, 10 species of Amphibia, and 6 species of reptiles are widely distributed; rivers are inhabited by 37 species of fish. Total area of hunting grounds in the region is 3304 thousand ha. As registered the number of wild animals in the boundaries of hunting farms is over 10 thousand ungulate animals, over 16 thousand squirrels, 11.6 thousand hares, 2.4 thousand foxes, 3 thousand muskrats and 3 beavers.
10. POPULATION The population of the Kaluga region numbers 1.1 millions (dated January 1, 2000). Every fifth person has higher education, and every second one specialized secondary education.
12. INDUSTRIES. The leading branch of economy of the Kaluga region is industry. Basic industries: - Machine building - Electrical energetics - Industry of building materials - Food industry - Wood, working, wood-pulp and paper industry Basic outputs: Turbines, gas turbine engines, high precise power hydraulics, diesel locomotives and track machines, complex radio-locating equipment, instruments, figure facilities for radio-electronics, paper, furniture and timbers, different food goods, shoes and clothes of high quality.
13. TRANSPORT Important rail lines that are going through the region connect Moscow with Ukraine, Povolzhye, Belorus, North-West of Russia and Baltic countries. There are highways as Moscow-Brest, Moscow-Kiev. There are 4 airports that could accept different kinds of plains.
14. AGRICULTURE Livestock farming comprises 60%. It includes horned cattle of milk-meat orientation and poultry farming. Plant and potato growing is high developed in the region. One of the prospective branches is flax growing. There are 6 flax mills in the region. There are good prospects on vegetables growing in inside bedding-out.
15. ECOLOGICAL CONDITIONS. The Kaluga region is a law-polluted region comparatively to other regions in Russia. Radiation situation in the region is characterized by radio-active polluted territories as a result of the accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear power station, and also by potentially dangerous objects in Obninsk and Smolensk region, and by natural sources of ionizing radiation.